Common Names Botanical Names Capsaicin



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How to grow hot peppers is your complete guide to various methods of pepper cultivation throughout the world.

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Identifying Types of Hot Peppers.

How to grow hot peppers guide will show you the times and places which are most suited for the best planting and growth of Peppers such as Chile Peppers, Cayenne, Ancho and Habanero Peppers.

How to grow hot Peppers will take you through a comprehensive step by step process on the best propagation methods, to give you the finest results for your garden.

The pepper genus is Capsicum, from the greek word kapto, appropriately enough, meaning " TO BITE ".

The species of Peppers are

Annuum, meaning annual,

Baccatum, meaning berrylike,

Chinense, meaning from China,

Frutescens, meaning shrubby or brushy,

Pubescens, meaning hairy,

CAPSICUM (Cap'sicum)

How to grow hot peppers






These are tender annuals or perennials from all over the world. They have straight, woody stems and single, star-shaped, white flowers in the axils of the leaves. The flowers are followed by juiceless berries or pods, which vary in shape and size. They are green at first and change to red, yellow or purple. They contain many flat, kidney-shaped, white seeds, which are very hot tasting. Kinds that are commonly grown are varieties of C. frutescens, which are the Peppers grown in the vegetable garden and include those from which red pepper, cayenne pepper, Tabasco and paprika are made. In tropical countries it is a perennial and will form a shrub as high as 8 feet, but when it is grown in gardens it is treated as an annual and is raised from seeds every year. This is true of the kinds that are grown as potted plants as well as those grown in the garden. There are many varieties of garden Peppers. They are divided into two groups; the Sweet peppers or mild-flavored varieties, which are used for stuffing, salads and garnishing and the hot Peppers, which are mainly used in sauces and flavoring. The Spanish word "Chili" describes Peppers of all kinds, but in English, the name is usually only applied to the pungent varieties used for flavoring. C. frutescens grossum, the Sweet or Bell Pepper, is a popular vegetable. When the fruit is ripe it is red or yellow, but it's used as a vegetable in the green stage. Certain kinds of Peppers are very pretty when grown as potted plants, especially in the fall and early winter. The best are C. frutescens cerasiforme, the Cherry Pepper and C. frutescens conoides, the Cone Pepper. The varieties of these kinds have red, purple or cream colored fruits displayed above the rich green foliage. Although these plants are technically perennials, they aren't worth keeping after they've fruited once. It's better to start new plants every year. Ornamental Peppers don't form good permanent houseplants.



Peppers need about the same care as Tomatoes, but they are even more vulnerable to cold. They need to be grown in soil that will not dry out quickly and is supplied with plenty of organic matter. Take care, when fertilizing, that is doesn't contain too much nitrogen; this will cause the plants to form a lot of foliage at the expense of the fruits. They should also be planted in a sunny spot. In the garden, they should be planted 18 inches apart in rows, 2 feet apart. Cultivate the surface of the soil often to get rid of weeds, but not so deeply that the roots are harmed. Peppers will bear throughout the summer as long as the fruits are picked regularly as soon as they're large enough. Gather the fruits by snapping of the brittle stems or cut them off with a sharp knife. Any fruits that haven't been picked and are hanging on the plant when frost threatens should be cut off and stored in a cool but frost-free cellar or similar place. Under such conditions they’ll keep for 3 or more months. When planting in pots, they should have porous, well-drained soil. Liquid fertilizer may be applied occasionally to prevent the leaves from yellowing. Don't over water; by keeping the soil a bit on the dry side, bushier and more compact plants will form. The plants usually don't need pinching, but if any shoots seem to stray, them may be pinched. Peppers must have full sun all the time. During hot weather, they may be kept in a greenhouse or outside buried to their rims in ashes or sand. They must be brought inside before cold weather sets in.



Seeds should be sown in light, well-drained soil in a warm, sunny greenhouse (60 degrees minimum) 6 to 8 weeks before they are to be set out. They should be set out when the weather is really warm and settled. The seeds take 16 to 20 days to sprout. Transplant the seedlings, as soon as they are large enough to handle, into flats, 2 to 3 inches apart or individually in small pots. In either case, use well-drained soil. The plants must never suffer through drought or low temperatures. Harden them off gradually before planting them outside.



Hot Peppers - C. frutescens abbreviatum (Short Peppers); C. frutescens conoides (Cone Peppers); C. frutescens fasciculatum (Red Cluster Peppers); C. frutescens longum (Long Peppers). The last named includes Chili, Cayenne and Long Yellow. Varieties of hot Peppers are: Hungarian Wax, Large Cherry, Long Red Cayenne, Maule's Red-Hot, Red Chili and Tabasco. All have red and orange-scarlet fruits when ripe.

Sweet or Bell Peppers - C. frutescens grossum and varieties Merrimack Wonder, Patrick Henry, Harris' Early Giant, Ruby King and Ozark Giant.


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